Monday, February 24, 2020
The Founding and the Constitution - Research Paper Example s required given the absolute nature of laws written into the Constitution, so the document is laying out a requirement that seeks a high standard of judgment. Also, the Constitution requires super majority votes from both the Senate as well as the House because, in theory, the two parts of the legislature were meant to represent different interests and different people (the Senate representing more of the small, rural states, which get to send two Senators in all cases whereas the House representing more of the populous states, which get to send representatives on the basis of population) (Alder). The second procedure (the Ã¢â¬Å"informal methodÃ¢â¬ ) for proposing amendments to the Constitution provides protection for states to an unresponsive Congress. If two-thirds of states agree to call for a convention, the Congress is obliged to call a convention. This method has neither constitutional instruction for how to complete the convention nor precedent to be relied upon. It is not clear whether the states would be represented equally or by population. With that said, all amendments to the Constitution have been carried out through the first procedure described. The Founders may have wanted this second procedure as a way of empowering the states and protecting against an intrusive, federal government (Mount). 2. Ã¢â¬Å"Loose constructionÃ¢â¬ refers to a loose or liberal interpretation of the U.S. Constitution, thus expanding federal powers beyond those explicitly mentioned in the document. In contrast, Ã¢â¬Å"strict constructionÃ¢â¬ refers to the opposite: it is a legal philosophy that requires the interpreter of the Constitution to apply the text only as it is written. In other words, powers not enumerated in the Constitution are invalid (Welch). As was described previously, the formal method of amendment has a clear process described in the Constitution, which maps onto the normal procedure for business of the Congress in creating laws. Therefore, the formal method of
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Global Trade and Distribution Strategy - Coursework Example In some cases, imported goods are of low quality hence they have cheap prices which make people shun products that are locally manufactured. 2. The target market for the Achilles kids shoes mainly include the parents who have young kids. The kids themselves are dependent on their parents for all their clothing needs. The company ought to identify factors such as levels of income of the targeted group. In order to cut costs, distribution strategy that would work for this target market is that the company performs the distribution of the products itself. After the products have been manufactured, the company ought to identify the channels through which the products will be distributed. The products should be sold through company operated stores since this helps to attract many customers. More importantly, this helps to reduce costs since other suppliers may charge more money for performing the same task of distributing the finished
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Canadian Museum of Nature Web Analysis Essay The Canadian Museum of NatureÃ¢â¬â¢s website is an average piece of work that gathers audience from both English and French speaking individuals. The museumÃ¢â¬â¢s Web presence is elegant and simple to use, clearly separating the English segment from the French segment to allow easier navigation throughout the site, which, considering the size and diversity of the system it represents, makes you wonder how the designers and creators managed to pull it off in such a simple way. Rhetorical Design The Canadian Museum of NatureÃ¢â¬â¢s website is intended to promote the museumÃ¢â¬â¢s products and services on offer at the museum among English speaking and French speaking tourists. Almost anyone visiting this website is most likely looking for information about a certain service or item relating to natural history and tourism, so it is safe to state that the primary audience for this website are nature lovers and tourists wishing to visit Canada or local Canadians looking for a place just to have a good time enjoying the marvels of nature. However, there is something for everyone in this website. Even for those who donÃ¢â¬â¢t intend to visit the museum but want to win something, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a photo contest section on the home page that might serve to draw more traffic to the site. This enhances the possibility of attracting more members to join in the course of the museum. The website also has links that connect to 5 of their other websites, basically to diversify and exert their web and market presence in the field of nature. The context of the website explores the versatility of the Canadian Museum of NatureÃ¢â¬â¢s Internal organization and products and services offered by the museum. Information on the home page is divided into eleven primary categories: Calendar of activities, visitor information, teacher zone, about the museum, renewal, exhibitions, polar year, collections, research, library and products services. The site also has quick links on shopping, becoming a member, donating to the cause, staff, press room and there is also a link for visitors to post comments and questions to the staff. All these information is carefully and strategically placed on the page to allow for easy navigation and still leaves a lot of space on the site. Congested sites tend to be an eye sore to the readers, but as for this one, no one has to worry about having to go through dozens of information to get to what youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking for. Interface Design The entire website is filled with photos of animals and artifacts of natural history which blends in very well with the overall theme of the website. Each page contains at least three amazing photos that keep the visitor glued to the website, even if just for the photos. Actually, come to think of it, the website contains very little text, it is only the overall design and beautiful photos that keep visitors busy on the site since thereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing much to read from the website. The home page contains very clear navigational links on the left hand side of the page to other sections of the website with its interface being simple, consistent and functional. However, due to the limited amount of information on the website, the interface does not provide sufficient feedback and does not have a real time visitor Ã¢â¬â support staff dialog system. Visitors have to leave a message on the contact us section and wait for an unknown amount of time for a feedback. All pages contain site navigation links. Site Design Text on the website is aligned to the left side of the screen, which is very effective for both the new and ordinary users of the site. The design of the site reflects the basic hierarchical organization of the Canadian Museum of Nature. From the home page, links to other major divisions can be easily accessed from the left hand corner; with each major hyperlink having a page that directs the user to other major sub-divisions; which leads the user to the exact information that can best satisfy the userÃ¢â¬â¢s specific need. The information on the pages, although minimal, gives a clear understanding of the basic intention of the site owners. The home page contains links to virtually everything someone would be looking for within the website. On the top right hand corner of the site, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s an appropriately placed site index which is very helpful in the navigation of the website. The site relies heavily on indexes as it is virtually impossible to find what you looking for without linking to a page that contains the sort of information that will be of help to the visitor. Page Design The web pages in this site are designed for users with 15 inch monitors. Since navigation throughout the site relies heavily on the site index and table of contents, the pages reveal a consistent visual hierarchy. The designers of this site rely on museumÃ¢â¬â¢s logo on each page as a header to constantly remind the user that they are still on the site, although the site could use the inclusion of a table on the calendar of activities segment to help the reader cut to the chase and find the exact thing heÃ¢â¬â¢s looking for instead of browsing through the links. Typography Only three font types have been used throughout the website, in order to make it neat at professional-like, with Verdana being the outstanding one. Coupled with a white background and text that are aligned to the left side of the page, the pages are full of life and bring out the message in a rather natural and easy way. Editorial Style The text in this site is brief and exact to the point even though it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t cover entirely everything a visitor would most likely want to know about. The site does not use titles or subtitles as it contains functional links that act as titles. Graphics Multimedia The website is fairly simple and does not contain a lot of graphics Ã¢â¬â only nature photos, which are significant in building the theme of the site and absolutely no audio, video, animation or multimedia of any sort and therefore it makes it easy for the pages to load faster, even with slower internet connectivity. Overall Impression To sum it up, the website has a fairly simple design. The fact that only three font types have been used in the entire site makes it easy to read through without straining . It is most likely to attract twice as much attention and traffic since it is written in two languages with clear and large enough text. Also, it appeals to its audience due to the fact that it has incorporated exquisite photos of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s on offer at the museum and thereÃ¢â¬â¢s also the constant use of the color green, which is a symbol of nature. The green color is likely to blend in with the visitorÃ¢â¬â¢s impression of the museum. What I liked most about this website is its simple yet comprehensive design and the fact that it is written for a much more broader audience i. e. the English and French. However, the website is too shallow and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have enough information for visitors. This makes new visitors to the site dig deeper than the site in order to find information thatÃ¢â¬â¢s featured in the website. On a general point of view, the website can be rated Ã¢â¬Å"AverageÃ¢â¬ .
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Augustus Ceasar Two of the most destructive problems facing the late Roman Republic were the instability and disunity caused by incessant civil wars. Rome's rapid expansion, after the Punic Wars, resulted in socioeconomic changes that permanently divided the state. Both aristocratic and plebeian parties sought total control of Rome and tried to destroy each other. Civil war was the continuation of party politics by other means. Consequently, the power of the military became supreme. Control of Rome's armies steadily shifted away from the legitimate government to the generals because the soldiers began to give their allegiance to their generals rather than to the civil authorities. On dismissal from military service, the legionnaires had no farms to return to, and they depended entirely on whatever land and money their generals could provide since the government was unwilling or unable to supply veterans with livelihoods. Thus, the generals became autonomous centers of power. The general who dominated the strongest army ruled the state. Repeated power struggles of these military strongmen ignited more civil wars that further undermined the stability and unity of the late Roman Republic. Augustus saw how divisive to the Roman polity civil war was. He understood that control of the legions by the civil government was necessary for the establishment of peace and order throughout the Roman Empire. He wanted to reorganize and institute changes in the military to assure that it would not rise again in support of some triumphant general to challenge the legitimacy of the state. Since warfare within the Empire was eliminated, the role of the legions changed. Its main objectives consisted in protecting the borders from foreign foes and pacifying conquered lands through the gradual introduction of the Roman language, law, administration, and engineering. Augustus' priority was to reduce the number of the legions from 60 to 28, settling in the process more than 100,000 veterans in colonies in Italy, Africa, Asia, and Syria. While proscription financed previous resettlement efforts, the vast wealth of Egypt, which he seized after Antony's defeat, subsidized Augustus' massive resettlement program. He raised the troops' salary and regularized the payment of pensions, which consisted of land and money, to veterans. Augustus, thus, reduced the old threat of soldiers giving their allegiance to wealthy generals rather than to the state. He also standardized the length of military service. The Roman legion became a professional, long service force with an esprit de corp that earlier legions did not have. Each legion was commanded by an officer
Monday, January 13, 2020
Greece is a country characterized by a remarkable history and a rich cultural heritage.Ã In ancient times, Greece played a crucial role in early civilization that proved to be monumental in shaping both European and world history.Ã At present, it successfully maintains its distinct culture in the dynamic modern society.Greece is a country with the land area of 131, 957 square kilometers (Ã¢â¬Å"CountriesÃ¢â¬ 302).Ã Ã Ã Its capital is Athens, which is also one of its major cities (Ã¢â¬Å"CountriesÃ¢â¬ 302).Ã Other major cities include Thessaloniki, Piraeus, Patras, Iraklion and Larissa (U.S. Department of State).Ã In 2005, the Greek population was estimated at 11,104,000, ten percent of which consists of immigrants (U.S. Department of State).Ã Three million of the said population is situated in Greater Athens (U.S. Department of State).In terms of religion, the majority of the Greek citizens are members of the Greek Orthodox Church (Ã¢â¬Å"CountriesÃ¢â¬ 302).Ã Other religions present in Greek society include Islam, Roman Catholicism and Protestantism (Ã¢â¬Å"CountriesÃ¢â¬ 302). Ã Greece is characterized by an interesting and diverse culture which is established on customs and traditions, religion, food and wine, and music.Ã Religion and traditions are closely linked, since the latter is usually based and anchored on the former.Ã Ironically, the Greeks also believe in superstitions.One of the Greek traditions still honored today at is the name day celebration (Greeka).Ã The Greeks give more importance to name days than birthdays; those who share a name with a celebrated saint also celebrate in a particular day of the year.Ã During a certain person's Ã¢â¬Å"name day,Ã¢â¬ family and friends visit to give wishes and gifts.Ã At the house, the hostess provides food for the guests (Greeka).Another Greek tradition is the Carnival or the Ã¢â¬Å"ApokriesÃ¢â¬ (Greeka).Ã Ã This feast occurs within a two week p eriod; it starts on Sunday of Meat Fare and ends on Ã¢â¬Å"Clean MondayÃ¢â¬ or Kathari Deutera (Greeka). Ã¢â¬Å"Clean MondayÃ¢â¬ or Kathari Deutera is the first day of Lent; at this time, families usually gather for a picnic and kite flying.Ã The Carnival is believed to have originated from paganism, and is derived from the merrymaking associated with the god Dionysus (Greeka).Ã This tradition is characterized by people in costumes partying in the streets.Ã A Carnival parade is held in Patra, where the festivities take place from day until night (Greeka).Easter is also significant for the Greeks.Ã In fact, it is considered more important than Christmas (Greeka).Ã Easter is a celebration that brings Greek families together.Ã Greek women are tasked to color the eggs red using dye; Godparents also give the children new things, such as shoes and clothes (Greeka).Ã Even the houses and streets are prepared for this occasion, as both are whitewashed for Easter.Ã In addition, the Greek family gathers for a feast of roasted lamb, wine and appetizers (Greeka).Music also plays a crucial role in Greek culture.Ã Music in Greece began as early as Antiquity, as it was an essential part of Greek civilization (Greeka).Ã The best example would be that of Greek tragedy, in which music was one of its key elements.Ã The demise of Ancient Greece also resulted in the decline of Greek music.Ã Fortunately, Greek music reemerged in the 19th century (Greeka).Folk songs also play a large role in Greek history.Ã The folk songs originated from ancient times (Greeka).Ã These songs are categorized into two: akritic and klephtic styles of music.Ã The former originated in 9th century AD. This kind of music conveyed the experiences and hardships of the Ã¢â¬Å"akrites,Ã¢â¬ or the Byzantine Empire guards (Greeka).Ã The latter was produced by Ã¢â¬Å"kleftesÃ¢â¬ or those who fought against the Ottoman Empire.Even though music is an express ion of the gruesome period in Greek history, it also included love songs.Ã This style of music was believed to have originated between the latter part of the Byzantine era and the early part of the Greek Revolution (Greeka).Ã Instruments that accompanied the folk songs include the bagpipe, tambourine and lute, just to name a few.Ã Other important elements of the Greek musical tradition are cantadha, nisiotika and rebetiko (Greeka).Food and wine are also significant in Greek culture (Greeka).Ã Greece is known for their appetizers and wines.Ã Mezedes, or Greek appetizers, are crucial in Mediterranean culture, as it promotes friendship through the sharing of food.Ã Some of the recognized Greek appetizers include the Greek salad or Horiatiki Salata, Tiropitakia, Htapodi and Feta cheese.Greece also produces wines. It is therefore no surprise that Greek alcohol such as Tsipouro and Ouzo are a main component in Greek culture.Ã Also, meat is almost always present in Gre ek main dishes, while their soups are very much preferred during the winter season.Ã The Greeks are also famous for the herbs and spices used in their dishes (Greeka).The history of Greece is extensive and thorough.Ã Greek culture began in the classical era, and proved to be a crucial element in the development of civilization in general (Pounds 326).Ã The Greek island of Crete was the location for the Minoan civilization, the earliest in Europe (Ã¢â¬Å"CountriesÃ¢â¬ 303).Ã Greece is also home to the city-states, whose prosperity brought the development of culture in aspects such as philosophy, literature, politics, architecture and art (Ã¢â¬Å"CountriesÃ¢â¬ 303-304).Ã Greek civilization was at its peak under the control of Philip II of Macedonia and his son, Alexander the Great.Ã However, the Greek civilization declined when the Roman civilization emerged (Ã¢â¬Å"CountriesÃ¢â¬ 304).Greek history also includes several wars. Civil War erupted following the occupation of German forces from 1941 to 1944 (Ã¢â¬Å"CountriesÃ¢â¬ 304).Ã Then, under the leadership of Prime Minister Eleutherios Venizelos, Greece officially became a part of World War I in 1917 (Pounds 328).The history of Greece was also marked by the constant change in form of government.Ã From 1925 to 1935, Greece was a republic (Pounds 328).Ã Then, Greece became a constitutional monarchy (Pounds 328).Ã In 1967, the monarchy was deposed by a military coup (Ã¢â¬Å"CountriesÃ¢â¬ 304).Ã The republic was restored in 1973, which lasted for only a year.Ã In 1975, democratic elections were held once again.Ã Six years later, Andreas Papandreou became the first socialist Prime Minister of Greece.Ã Then, in 1990, a Democratic Party member named Constantine Mitsotakis was elected at the same post (Ã¢â¬Å"CountriesÃ¢â¬ 304).With its extensive historical background, Greece remains a crucial part of world civilization.Ã With its customs and traditions, Gr eece keeps its diverse and unique culture in modern day society.Ã Indeed, Greece remains relevant at present through its history and culture.Works CitedBateham, Graham, and Victoria Egan, eds. Illustrated Guide to Countries of the World. Australia: RD Press, 1996.Greeka. 17 March 2008 ;http://www.greeka.com/greece-culture/;.Pounds, Norman J.G. Ã¢â¬Å"Greece.Ã¢â¬ Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia. 21 vols. New York: Lexicon Publications, Inc., 1992.U.S. Department of State.Ã 17 March 2008 ;https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3395.htm;.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
: Max School of Technology and Society MASTER DEGREE PROJECT EXCHANGE RATE VARIATION AND INFLATION IN NIGERIA (1970- 2007) Master Degree Project in Economics and Finance D-Leval 15 ECTS Spring term Year 2008 Onosewalu Okhiria 761130-P319 Taofeek Sesan Saliu 761130-P719 Supervisor: Bernd-Joachim Schuller(PhD) Examiner: Max Zamanian (PhD) ABSTRACT This study examines the impact of exchange rate on inflation in Nigeria economy between 1970 and 2007. We analysed the trend of inflation and exchange rate in the last 38 years by evaluating the relationship between government expenditure, money supply, Oil revenue, exchange rate and inflation as the dependent variables. We adopted the Augmented Dickey- Fuller to carry out theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Inflation is one of the most frequently used terms in economic discussions, yet the concept is variously misconstrued. There are various schools of thought on inflation, but there is a consensus among economists that inflation is a continuous rise in the prices. Simply put, inflation depicts an economist situation where there is a general rise in prices of goods and services, continuously. It could be defined as Ã¢â¬Ëa continue rise in prices as measured by an index such as the consumer price index (CPI) or by the implicit price deflator for Gross National Product (GNP). Inflatio n is frequently described as a state where Ã¢â¬Å"too much money is chasing too few goodsÃ¢â¬ . When there is inflation, the currency losses purchasing power. The purchasing power of a given amount of naira (currency) will be smaller over time when there is inflation in the economy. For instance, assuming N10.00 (Nigeria unit currency) can purchase 10Show MoreRelatedThe Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuation on Macroeconomic Performance in Nigeria22514 Words Ã |Ã 91 PagesTHE IMPACT OF EXCHANGE RATE FLUCTUATION ON MACROECONOMIC PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY This study is designed to examine the causes of exchange rate fluctuations and their impact on the Nigerian economy since there is scarcely any country that lives in absolute autarky in this globalised world. The economies of all the countries of the world are linked directly or indirectly through asset or/and goods markets. This linkage is made possible throughRead MoreEffect of Devaluation of Naira on Price Level3724 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesDEVALUATION OF NAIRA ON PRICE LEVEL IN NIGERIA BY Ã ¹MR. IKECHI, PRINCE OBINNA MBA (Marketing), MCIM, MNIMN, Lecturer, Marketing Department; Rivers State College Of Education, St. JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s Campus, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Tel: +234(0)8033429869; Ã ²HON. TAMUNO, MAUREEN PIRIBONEMI KBVM MBA (Marketing), FCIM, AMNIM. Member, Rep.: Ogu/Bolo Constituency Chairman, House Committee on Education Rivers State House of Assembly, Port Harcourt, Nigeria E Mail: email@example.com;Read MoreGermany Market : The Market For Growth Expansion1307 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Nevertheless, in order for Bel to increase shareholders worth at to create exchanges that satisfy the objectives of shareholders the Germany market in EU is the right market for growth expansion. However the rationale behind this choice of country is due to the fact that customers in Germany are very cautious about hygiene compare to some of the Asian and African countries that has order alternative like water and it is assumed that many of the products in the disposable paper market are consideredRead MoreThe Impact of Macroeconomic Instability on the Banking Sector7782 Words Ã |Ã 32 Pages(2009) Ã © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2009 http://www.eurojournals.com/JMIB.htm The Impact of Macroeconomic Instability on the Banking Sector Lending Behaviour in Nigeria Somoye, Russell Olukayode Christopher Associate Professor, Department of Banking and Finance Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye P.O Box 1140 Ijebu Ode , Nigeria E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: + 234-8033335688 Ilo, Bamidele M Department of Banking and Finance, Olabisi Onabanjo University PMB 2002, Ago- Iwoye E-mail:Read MoreOil Prices and Economic Growth1255 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstill cannot be denied. This sharp increase in the world oil prices and the volatile exchange rates are generally regarded as the factors of discouraging economic growth. Particularly, the very recent highs, recorded in the world oil market bring apprehension about possible slump in the economic growth in both developed and developing countries. A large number of researchers proposed that exchange rate volatility and oil price fluctuations have considerable consequences on real economic activitiesRead MoreOil Prices and Economic Growth1250 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesstill cannot be denied. This sharp increase in the world oil prices and the volatile exchange rates are generally regarded as the factors of discouraging economic growth. Particularly, the very recent highs, recorded in the world oil market bring apprehension about possible slump in the economic growth in both developed and developing countries. A large number of researchers proposed that exchange rate volatility and oil price fluctuations have considerable consequences on real economic activitiesRead MoreThe Importance of Crude Oil Essay1251 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstill cannot be denied. This sharp increase in the world oil prices and the volatile exchange rates are generally regarded as the factors of discouraging economic growth. Particularly, the very recent highs, recorded in the world oil market bring apprehension about possible slump in the economic growth in both developed and developing countries. A large number of researchers proposed that exchange rate volatility and oil price fluctuations have considerable consequences on real economic activitiesRead MoreIMPACT OF MONEY SUPPLY ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIA6890 Words Ã |Ã 28 PagesTHE IMPACT OF MONEY SUPPLY ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIA CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY In the critical observation of the recent Nigerian economic position, there has been a great divergence between the rate at which money is supplied and the exact impact it has on the general price level, which results in inflation and deflation on one hand, and the output growth (productivity) on the other hand. Although, it had occurred to our mind that NigerianRead MoreBrief History Of Bel Implex Nigeria Limited1804 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages PART TWO 2.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF BEL IMPLEX NIGERIA LIMITED Bel Implex Limited, the converting arm of Bel Papyrus Limited, the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s paper mill operation was incorporated by Group Boulos in 2001. Bel Implex is equipped with the best European converting machines. However, Bel is currently producing and distributing several lines and sub-brands of tissue paper such as: facial tissue, toilet tissue, baby wipes, table napkins, kitchen towel, handkerchiefs and diapers. Due to the quality of its productsRead MoreBel Implex Nigeria Limited Management1821 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages PART TWO 2.1 BRIEF OVERVIEW OF BEL IMPLEX NIGERIA LIMITED Bel Implex Limited, the converting arm of Bel Papyrus Limited, the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s paper mill operation was incorporated by Group Boulos in 2001. Bel Implex is equipped with the best European converting machines. However, Bel is currently producing and distributing several lines and sub-brands of tissue paper such as: facial tissue, toilet tissue, baby wipes, table napkins, kitchen towel, handkerchiefs and diapers. Due to the quality of its products
Saturday, December 28, 2019
We can only speculate about early religion. When the ancient cave painters drew animals on the walls of their caves, this may have been part of a belief in the magic of animism. By painting the animal, the animal would appear; by painting it speared, success in the hunt might be guaranteed. Neanderthals buried their dead with objects, presumably so they could be used in the afterlife. By the time mankind was banding together in cities or city-states, structures for the godsÃ¢â¬âlike templesÃ¢â¬âdominated the landscape. Four Creator Gods Ancient Mesopotamians attributed the forces of nature to the workings of divine forces. Since there are many forces of nature, so there were many gods and goddesses, including four creator gods. These four creator gods, unlike the Judaeo-Christian concept of God, were NOT there from the beginning. The forces of Taimat and Abzu, who had emerged from a primordial chaos of water, created them. This isnt unique to Mesopotamia; the ancient Greek creation story also tells of primordial beings who emerged from Chaos. The highest of the four creator gods was the sky-god An, the over-arching bowl of heaven.Next came Enlil who could either produce raging storms or act to help man.Nin-khursag was the earth goddess.The fourth god was Enki, the water god and patron of wisdom. These four Mesopotamian gods did not act alone, but consulted with an assembly of 50, which is called the Annunaki. Innumerable spirits and demons shared the world with the Annunaki.Ã¢â¬â¹ How the Gods Helped Mankind The gods bound people together in their social groups and were believed to have provided what they needed to survive. The Sumerians developed stories and festivals to explain and harness help for their physical environment. Once a year came the new year and with it, the Sumerians thought the gods decided what would happen to mankind for the coming year. Priests Otherwise, the gods and goddesses were more concerned with their own feasting, drinking, fighting, and arguing. But they could be prevailed upon to help on occasion if ceremonies were performed to their liking. The priests were responsible for the sacrifices and rituals that were essential for the help of the gods. In addition, property belonged to the gods, so priests administered it. This made the priests valuable and important figures in their communities. And so, the priestly class developed.